Battling Infectious Diseases
- Paul Dotson
- Theory, Simulation, and Computation
- Jon Longmire
- Rebecca McDonald
- Jose A. Olivares
- Antonio Redondo
- Nan Sauer
- Chemistry, Life, and Earth Sciences
- Thomas C. Terwilliger
Science and technology designed to battle pathogens
Los Alamos scientists are developing science and technology designed to battle pathogens responsible for causing disease epidemics, and extreme cases, pandemics.
Such pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions.
The source of these pathogens can be natural (for example, a mosquito that carries the West Nile Virus) or manmade (for example, bioterrorism).
|Structural, Cell, and Computational Biology|
|Measurement Science and Diagnostics|
|Modeling Infection and Immunology|
|Disease Surveillance and Management|
|Bioinformatics and Biosurveillance|
|Vaccines and Therapeutics|
Projects in this subject area are concerned with countering pathogens responsible for disease epidemics, and extreme cases, pandemics. Such pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions...more...
The source of these pathogens can be natural (for example, ticks that carry Lyme disease) or manmade (for example, biological weapons such as anthrax). Scientific objectives include the following:
- Preventing epidemics and pandemics caused by human contact with animals or through bioterrorism.
- Unlocking the mysteries behind disease-causing bacteria and viruses, as well as diseases such as cancer and diabetes.
- Understanding and countering subtle or dramatic changes in the environment that facilitate disease in humans and animals.
- Overcoming social unrest caused by biologically driven natural or manmade disasters (such as the destruction of a nation’s agriculture).
- Designed chimeric antimicrobial proteins that rapidly eliminate bacteria from infected sites in plants and humans
- Developed polymeric chelators for radioisotope delivery systems that have applications in medical imaging and in vivo cancer therapy
- Created the High-Throughput Laboratory Network, which is designed to monitor pathogens responsible for influenza in animals and humans
- Developed an optical biosensor that detects protein toxins and biological pathogens
- Created the world’s first Portable Acoustic Cytometer that can perform high-throughput screening of possible new drugs, as well as cancer markers and infectious agents
- Invented SOFIA (surround optical fiber immunoassay) that helps detect prion diseases (such as fatal neurodegenerative disease) in animals and humans
- Developed EPiSimS, an agent-based simulation engine designed to help assess disease prevention, intervention, and response strategies
- Invented EpiCast, an epidemiological forecasting simulation model that can model potential bioterrorist attacks to help decision makers formulate effective countermeasures
- Working to understand the viral factors that facilitate transmission of HIV infection to develop preventative approaches, including possible vaccines, to curtail this epidemic
- Center for Bio-Security Science: Activities at this center include modeling infection and immune response, surveying and managing diseases, and developing vaccines and other forms of therapeutics.
- Pathogen Research Databases: Los Alamos has in place extensive databases that cover HIV, Hepatitis C, influenza, oral pathogens (both bacterial and viral), and bacteria and viruses responsible for sexually transmitted diseases.
- High-Throughput Gene Cloning and Protein Production Facility: This facility serves the Tuberculosis Structural Genomics Consortium and the Integrated Center for Structure and Function Innovation. Scientists here collaborate with various universities and other national laboratories to better-understand how proteins work, as these are considered the “machines of life.”
- Los Alamos Molecular Recognition Alliance: The objective of this alliance is to develop “affinity reagents” (molecular alternatives to antibodies) to counter diseases. Los Alamos has developed reagents that counter cholera, plague, anthrax, influenza, and Hantavirus.
- National Flow Cytometry Resource: This resource uses flow cytometry to analyze bacteria, viruses, and other particles for applications such as analyzing and identifying microbes, performing bacterial fingerprinting and forensics, and conducting cell and cancer biology.
- Protein Crystallography Station: This facility uses neutron diffraction techniques to perform groundbreaking work in new drug-design methods
- Alan Perelson and Ruy Ribeiro: Modeling of infection and immune response; understanding the dynamics of viral infections
- Chang-Shung Tung: Modeling of structure and interaction of virulence factors
- Kristin Omberg: Biodetection systems engineering
- John Ambrosiano: Analytical approaches to food security
- Helen Cui: Biothreat nonproliferation
- Scott White: Classified computing for biosecurity
- Jeanne Fair: Avian immunology and host range
- Murray Wolinsky: Nucleic acid signature and assay design/analysis for biothreat detection, forensics, and diagnostics
- Judith Cohn: Integration of biological databases and high-throughput computational analysis
- Carla Kuiken: Viral evolution, biological database, and tool development
- Bette Korber and Tanmoy Bhattacharya: Evolutionary biology and vaccine design
- Alan Lapedes: Antigenic, genetic, and structural characterization of HIV-1 neutralization data
- Elizabeth Hong-Geller: Host pathology biology (personal homepage)
- Norman Dogett: detection and forensics
- Bob Williams: biological and chemical toxicology
- National Institutes of Health
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology
- 2011 Distinguished Patent Award for a highly engineered version of a green fluorescent protein (isolated from luminescent jellyfish) that can be used to better understand the underpinnings of disease
|2012 - Taina Immonen; Richard Gibson; Thomas Leitner; Melanie A. Miller; Eric J. Arts; Erkki Somersalo; Daniela Calvetti
A hybrid stochastic-deterministic computational model accurately describes spatial dynamics and virus diffusion in HIV-1 growth competition assay
Journal of Theoretical Biology 2012;312():120-132.
|2012 - Richard S. Middleton; Michael J. Kuby; Ran Wei; Gordon N. Keating; Rajesh J. Pawar
A dynamic model for optimally phasing in CO 2 capture and storage infrastructure
Environmental Modelling and Software 2012;37():193-205.
|2012 - Ghanim Ullah; William J. Bruno; John E. Pearson
Simplification of reversible Markov chains by removal of states with low equilibrium occupancy
Journal of Theoretical Biology 2012;311():117-129.
|2012 - Xiao Hua Liu; Jiang Wei Wang; Shan Huang; Feifei Fan; Xu Huang; Yang Liu; Sergiy Krylyuk; Jinkyoung Yoo; Shadi A. Dayeh; Albert V. Davydov; et al.
In situ atomic-scale imaging of electrochemical lithiation in silicon
Nature Nanotechnology 2012;():.
|2012 - Li Chen; Qinjun Kang; Ya-Ling He; Wen-Quan Tao
Pore-scale simulation of coupled multiple physicochemical thermal processes in micro reactor for hydrogen production using lattice Boltzmann method
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2012;37(19):13943-13957.
|2012 - Jin Wang; Ronaldo J. Oliveira; Xiakun Chu; Paul C. Whitford; Jorge Chahine; Wei Han; Erkang Wang; José N. Onuchic; Vitor B. P. Leite
Topography of funneled landscapes determines the thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012;109(39):15763-15768.
|2012 - Debby Basu; Colleen S. Kraft; Megan K. Murphy; Patricia J. Campbell; Tianwei Yu; Peter T. Hraber; Carmela Irene; Abraham Pinmelater; Elwyn Chomba; Joseph Mulenga; et al.
HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfection
|2012 - Julian C.-H. Chen; B. Leif Hanson; S. Zoë Fisher; Paul Langan; Andrey Y. Kovalevsky
Direct observation of hydrogen atom dynamics and interactions by ultrahigh resolution neutron protein crystallography
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012;109(38):15301-15306.
|2012 - Joseph E. Qualls; Chitra Subramanian; Wasiulla Rafi; Amber M. Smith; Liza Balouzian; Ashley A. Defreitas; Kari Ann Shirey; Benjamin Reutterer; Elisabeth Kernbauer; Silvia Stockinger; et al.
Sustained generation of nitric oxide and control of mycobacterial infection requires argininosuccinate synthase 1
Cell Host and Microbe 2012;12(3):313-323.
|2012 - S. Zoë Fisher; Mayank Aggarwal; Andrey Y. Kovalevsky; David N. Silverman; Robert McKenna
Neutron diffraction of acetazolamide-bound human carbonic anhydrase II reveals atomic details of drug binding
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012;134(36):14726-14729.
|2012 - Mark L. Porter; E.T. Coon; Q. Kang; J.D. Moulton; J.W. Carey
Multicomponent interparticle-potential lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with large viscosity ratios
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 2012;86(3):.
|2012 - Tufan K. Mukhopadhyay; Russell K. Feller; Francisca N. Rein; Neil J. Henson; Nathan C. Smythe; Ryan J. Trovitch; John C. Gordon
Investigation of formally zerovalent Triphos iron complexes
Chemical Communications 2012;48(69):8670-8672.
|2012 - Rob J. De Boer; Alan S. Perelson; Ruy M. Ribeiro
Modelling deuterium labelling of lymphocytes with temporal and/or kinetic heterogeneity
Journal of the Royal Society Interface 2012;9(74):2191-2200.
|2012 - Woong Young So; Jiyun Hong; Janice J. Kim; Gizelle A. Sherwood; Kelly Chacon-Madrid; James H. Werner; Andrew P. Shreve; Linda A. Peteanu; Jurjen Wildeman
Effects of solvent properties on the spectroscopy and dynamics of alkoxy-substituted PPV oligomer aggregates
Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2012;116(35):10504-10513.
|2012 - Caitlin M. Davis; Shifeng Xiao; Daniel P. Raleigh; R. Brian Dyer
Raising the speed limit for β-hairpin formation
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012;134(35):14476-14482.
|2012 - K.M. Dani; J. Lee; R. Sharma; A.D. Mohite; C.M. Galande; P.M. Ajayan; A.M. Dattelbaum; H. Htoon; A.J. Taylor; R.P. Prasankumar
Intraband conductivity response in graphene observed using ultrafast infrared-pump visible-probe spectroscopy
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 2012;86(12):.
|2012 - Marcel Lucas; Susan K. Hanson; Gregory L. Wagner; David B. Kimball; Kirk D. Rector
Evidence for room temperature delignification of wood using hydrogen peroxide and manganese acetate as a catalyst
Bioresource Technology 2012;119():174-180.
|2012 - Xuefeng Shang; Lianjie Huang
Optimal designs of time-lapse seismic surveys for monitoring CO 2 leakage through fault zones
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2012;10():419-433.
|2012 - Jennifer A. Plaut; Enrico A. Yepez; Judson Hill; Robert Pangle; John S. Sperry; William T. Pockman; Nate G. Mcdowell
Hydraulic limits preceding mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland under experimental drough Plant, Cell and Environment 2012;35(9):1601-1617.
|2012 - Olivia U. Mason; Terry C. Hazen; Sharon Borglin; Patrick S G. Chain; Eric A. Dubinsky; Julian L. Fortney; James Han; Hoi-Ying N. Holman; Jenni Hultman; Regina Lamendella; et al.
Metagenome, metatranscriptome and single-cell sequencing reveal microbial response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill
ISME Journal 2012;6(9):1715-1727.